Star Delta Starter Line Diagram and Its Working Principle
Star-Delta starter is an electrical motor starting device, generally uses in big size motor to overcome some technical limitation. Star and Delta means here 2 separate states of motor running, first Star connection and then Delta connection.
The starting current of any heavy electric motor can be more than 4 times the normal load current it draws when it has gained speed and has reached its normal running condition. To overcome this initial high current enchanting problem, such arrangement needs Star connection at starting time and if Star connection has sufficient torque to run up to 75% to %80 of full load speed, then the motor can be connected in Delta mode.
When the motor connected to Delta configuration the phase voltage increases by 173% and phase currents increase by the same ratio. The line current increases three times its value in star connection.
What Problem Starting Motor without Star-Delta?
We already know, if the motor starts simply when connected in Delta, the starting current would be huge and just to be able to start the motor, not to running condition. To do this it would require -
v Large capacity circuit breakers to allow the start-up surge current to pass without immediately shutting the motor off.
v Over sized 3-phase power service cables require just for starting time, but normal running time not necessary.
v Large size of coils and contacts on the relays or contractors need to control the motor, but normal running time need smaller sizes of them.
Sometimes, utility company also not permits big motor starting without Star-Delta starter because of system instability due to switching transient.
How Wiring a Star-Delta Starter for Motor?
Follow the figure below, power connection between magnetic contact for Main, Star, Delta and motor are shown in schematic line diagram and wiring diagram for easy wiring.
What Important During Star-Delta Transition Period?
It is important that the break between Star contractor switch OFF and Delta contactor switch is ON, because Star contactor must be reliably quenched before Delta contactor is activated. During transition period of switch-over the motor must be free running with little deceleration. It is also important that the switch over pause is not too long, it may generate a voltage of its own and this may add to or subtract from the applied line voltage.
That’s all for Star-Delta starter for today; here in this article we discussed only for motor starting by 3 magnetic contracts Star-Delta, solid state motor starter from different company also are available in market now.