How Economizer Works in Centrifugal Chiller


How Economizer Works in Centrifugal Chiller

How Economizer works in Centrifugal Water Chiller


Figure shows how economizer works in centrifugal chiller for 2 stage chiller and 3 stage chiller. An economizer can be used in conjunction with multiple expansion devices to improve the efficiency of a multi-stage chiller. In a chiller with a 2-stage compressor, the expansion process can be separated into 2 steps with an economizer chamber between.

Liquid refrigerant from the condenser enters the first expansion device, which reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the second-stage impeller inlet. This pressure drop causes a portion of the liquid refrigerant to evaporate, or flash, and the resulting mixture of liquid and vapour enters the economizer chamber. Here, the vapour is separated from the mixture and is routed directly to the inlet of the second stage impeller. The remaining liquid travels on to the second expansion device and evaporator.

Just before entering the evaporator, the liquid refrigerant flows through a second expansion device that reduces its pressure and temperature to evaporator conditions.

Flashing a portion of the refrigerant prior to the economizer reduces the amount of compressor power required, since the refrigerant vapour generated in the economizer only needs to be compressed by the second-stage impeller. The benefit of the economizer will be discussed in greater detail in Period 2. In a chiller with a 3-stage compressor, the expansion process can be separated into 3 steps with separate economizer chambers between the steps.

Liquid refrigerant from the condenser enters the first orifice (expansion device), which reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the third-stage impeller inlet. This pressure drop causes a portion of the liquid refrigerant to flash, and the resulting mixture of liquid and vapour enters the high-pressure chamber of the economizer. Here, the vapor is separated from the mixture and is then routed directly to the inlet of the third-stage impeller. The remaining liquid travels on to the second expansion device.

The second expansion device further reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of the second-stage impeller inlet. This pressure drop causes a portion of the liquid refrigerant to flash, and the resulting mixture of liquid and vapour enters the low-pressure chamber of the economizer. Here, the vapour is separated from the mixture and routed directly to the inlet of the second-stage impeller. The remaining liquid travels on to the third expansion device and evaporator.

Hope it will helpful for basic understanding of 2 stage chiller and 3 stage chiller economizer. 

Reference: Trane Chiller


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